Saturday, 31 May 2014

Chapter----13 of My Mughal Road Motor Biking Escapade

Chapter---13 of our Mughal Road Motor Biking Escapade

Chapter—13 of (15)

Our today’s route will pass through Kokernag—--Deval Gam-----Vailoo-----Daruloom-----Daksum—--SinthanTop-----Singhpura-----Dichar-----Chatroo Nullaha-----Bandar-Koot-----Dul-----Sheikhpora-----Chowgam-----Kishtwar-town----- Drabshalla-----Thatri-----Premnagar-----Ghuraka-----Mandelah-----Paka-Pul-----New Doda town.

The distance from Kokernag to Doda town that we would be travelling today is about 220 Km. But the road is narrow, rugged, and dangerously uneven with sharp bends and blind turns that is full of dangerous landslides and small rivulets crossing. So today we may take 8 to 9 hours of travelling. Because wherever we may like the scenic beauty of nature or other natural places of attracting views, we may stop to enjoy, relax and click pictures. We just want to enjoy our this adventurous and exciting motor biking trip rather than rushing like an impatient traveller.

Our today’s proposed Night halt is at Doda town’s government guest house.

On 30th of August 2012, after our morning breakfast at Kokernag, we  filled our motor bikes fuel tanks to full capacity, knowing it well that there won’t be any petrol bunk available on the way, untill we reach Kisthwar town which is about 140 Km away. Then we drove our motor bikes towards Sinthan Pass that connects Kashmir valley with Jammu region. As we drove past the Kokernag Gardens, after many small hamlets, the first popular village that comes on the way is Daksum.







Daksum is located at an altitude of 2,438mt (8,500 ft) above the sea level. It is situated at a distance of 40 km from the main district headquarters that is Anatnag and about 85 km from Srinagar and is about 15 Km from Kokernag. It is on the trekking route from Kokernag to Kishtwar. From here many trekking trails lead to Kisthwar through Sinthan Top.

The picturesque Daksum is situated amidst the magnificent grandeur of the springs; it presents an awe-inspiring awesome sight. Daksum offers peace and tranquillity. The only sound heard there is that of cascading Bringhi River, rushing right through its centre. Daksum is a place where you can revel in solitude and be one with nature. Pine trees; green meadows, clear gurgling brooks, fresh mountain air all promise to make your experience invigorating and long lasting.

 Daksum in Kashmir valley is a must for those who are fond of treks and nature.





A walk in Daksum will take you up to the hills enveloped in lush coniferous trees and past gurgling brooks. The simple music coming out of the flute of an unseen shepherd tending to his flock will keep you mesmerized. The landscape of Daksum is quite serene. From the tree-covered hills, you will suddenly find yourself in grassy meadows serving as host to the pasture grazing herds of sheep. The invigorating mountain air, the calm and serenity, the densely clad hills, all make the trip to Daksum a memorable experience. Then, there are the snow-capped mountains in the background that further enhance the beauty of this place. Daksum is also famous for its trout - an angler's heaven.

From Duksum onwards the gradient of the road is a very steep climb and at certain stretches the road is bad, full of landslides and small rivulet those are crossing the road and at certain stretches the sides of the road were covered  with thick, hard snow. So we had to practically drive very carefully otherwise we may have had invariably met with serious accidents.



These are the pictures of Birch Trees. In olden days the barks of which were used for writing literature. Pictures clicked @ Sinthan Pass by ASHOK PARIMOO






These are the pictures of Birch Trees. In olden days the barks of which were used for writing literature.are the pictures of Birch Trees. In olden days the barks of which were used for writing literature.




Just few km before Sinthan Top, at a height of nearly above 10,000 feet a whole stretch of white barked fir trees starts. In olden days the barks of these trees were used as fine, smooth, thin sheets to write scripts of written literature. And these barks would lasts for centuries without getting frayed or spoilt. Even today we in India have thousands of such written documents to prove its authenticity.


Sinthan Pass, also called as Sinthan Top







The Sinthan Top, at 12,450 ft., is one of the barren passes of Pir Panjal. The top portion of this Sinthan top is completely bald without any dense forests of Deodar, pine or fir trees. It’s just a plateau. Once we reached on the top portion of the Sinthan top, it felt as if we were on top of the world with plenty of fresh pollution free air and cold breeze and it felt as if the aquamarine blue sky was just at a height of our arms length. At this height we could really touch the  sailing clouds. To inspire our thrilling excitement of achieving one of the most thrilling experience of riding through one of the most difficult strenuous terrene road. 








At top of the Sinthan Top there is a huge high rectangular steel structure which reads as “WELCOME TO SINTHAN TOP” and shows the road distances of few nearby towns. This high steel structure is erected by Boarder Road Organization who constantly manages the whole stretch of road.






After Sinthan Top, to drive towards Kishtwar the road starts descending at steep gradient. The road is fairly ok except at certain stretches. On the way till Kishtwar town we have to pass through many small hamlets and villages. All along the stretch the population is very thinly inhabited. Wherever and whenever we came across any small village, near these villages on either side of the road there are small water-mills, those in local language are called “Chakkies”. These “Chakkies are olden days milling machines which are operated with the force of water and are used for grinding, wheat, spices, corn, chillies etc.

On the way to Kishtwar we have to cross Chenab River twice. Once at Chatroo Nullaha and then at Chowgam. And after that all along our journey from Doda till Batote our road is all along parallel to Chenab River. All along the road the drive is dangerous and scary. Any small or big mistake while driving is sure invitation to fatal death.

From Chowgam there is a road which goes towards Keylong---Tandi (which is on the way to Leh from Rohtang Pass, in Himachal Pradesh) and this road is called as Keylong--Tandi--Kisthwar road.


Now under construction is the Kishtwar-Anantnag tunnel that will pass through the Sinthan Pass.
The ambitious project to bore a tunnel between Vailoo in South Kashmir and Singhpora in Kishtwar, once completed, will revolutionise road connectivity between the Kashmir Valley and the Doda region of Jammu.

Even as work continues on the road which goes through one of the highest passes in the Himalayan region (Sinthan Top) that will connect Kishtwar, (the remote district in the Doda region), with Anantnag in South Kashmir. The tunnel will shorten the travelling distance from eight hours to two hours.

The five-km-long tunnel is financed by the Jammu and Kashmir Bank on a public-private-partnership basis. International bids have been invited to take up the work.

Recently a technical team of consultants from Mumbai visited the area to conduct an informal survey for making the departmental Project Report  (DPR). They trekked 13 km to see how the work can be made possible.

The team was accompanied by Minister for Roads and Buildings G.M. Saroori, who has been pivotal in pushing the project through. He later told The Hindu that the tunnel will be completed in two years, after the bidding is finalised, at a cost of Rs.640 crore.

Under the Prime Minister's Reconstruction Plan, Rs.640 crore has already been earmarked for the road that will pass through Sinthan Pass.

Work on the project was stopped in 2008 when militants killed four General Reserve Engineering Force (GREF) personnel, including a Lieutenant Colonel, on June 13 that year.

While the BRO proposed a six-km-long tunnel between Pahalgarh and Alan Gadole, the State government prefers a four-km-long tunnel from Singhpora and Vailoo.

The work is almost complete on the Anantnag side but only light vehicles from South Kashmir to Kishtwar ply on a daily basis. The Pass closes soon after the first snowfall until April.

traveller has to cover 290 km to reach Kishtwar via the Srinagar-Jammu highway, and the Srinagar-Sinthan-Kishtwar road reduces the distance by 200 km. Earthwork and two-laning have been completed from Batote to Chatroo on the Kishtwar side, but the middle stretch needs a lot more work.


Kishtwar Town

Pictures of Present Day Kishtwar Town




History  
Kishtwar is first referred to in the Rajatarangini by the ancient name Kashthavata, during the reign of Raja Kalsa of Kashmir (1063–1089), when "Uttamaraja", the ruler of Kashthavata visited the court of the Kashmir King in company with several other hill chiefs to pay their respects to the Raja. The Mehta Family was given the lands of Kishtwar by the King of Kashmir. Their family temple "Hatta Wali Mata" and their heritage can still be tracked back to Kishtwar. The founder of this family was the Commander-in-Chief of the Kashmir Army "Sip-E-Salar Sri Jiya Lal Mehta". Known for his bravery and velour he fought the Mughals and northern raiders who invaded the land.

The current name, Kishtwar, is a combination of the earlier name Kishaswar and "Kishat Rishi", who stayed there.

The main language spoken here is called Kishtwari (related to Kashmiri language) by locals.

Attractions
The Chenab River  flows through the district and is the site of the hydroelectric power projects of Dul Hasti 780 MW, Ratle 480 MW, Kirthai 1400 MW, Pakal Dool 700 MW, Lower Kalnai 200 MW and Chaudhary 150 MW with the highest per capita wattage production in world for such a small area. Kashmir sapphire was mined at Padder valley. And gypsum is mined at Trigam. The famous Sinthan and Margan tops are high motorable road passes. The Steep Brahma mountain peak is situated at Dachhan. Saffron of purest quality is produced in the iron rich soil at Pochhal, Matta, Lachdayaram and Hidyal. Kishtwar National Park, in the northeast region of the district, has a large number of peaks and glaciers. Kishtwar is endowed with dense forests of Deodar, pine and fir. There are high altitude mountains ranging between 20,000 feet to 21,000 feet like Num Kum, Burmah and Barnag. Pilgrims and tourists visit shrines in the area including Ziarat Zain-Shah-Sahib, Farid-ud-Din Sahib, Hazrat Asrar-ud-Din Sahib, Athara Bhuja Devi temple, Chandi Mata temple, Hatta Wali Matta and Macheil Mata.

Padder
The Kishtwar Himalaya is a small sub-range of the Himalayan mountain range. In states of Jammu and Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh. It is a dramatic range of steep rock and ice peaks with great local relief. However it is not as well known as other parts of the Himalaya since its highest peak, Bharanzar, or Sickle Moon, is only 6,574 m (21,568 ft) in elevation. One of its best-known peaks is Brammah, 6,416 m (21,050 ft).

There is a valley named Padar valley near Kishtwar. Formerly this valley was under the rule of Himachali kings. Legend has it that this valley was given to the king of Jammu as a dowry. A mixture of Hindu and Buddhist people live here.

The Paddar valley is famous for its sapphire mines. The slopes near the place are packed with abundant of wild-life. It has many hot springs, great hiking, and a river, ideal for cannoning.

History of Paddar
No concrete material is available about the early history of Paddar. However, it is said that there was no one in Paddar till 8th century. It was just a meadow. The people from nearby areas such as Bhaderwah, Lahaul and Ladakh were attracted to see the grazing lands. They used to come here to graze their cattle. With the passage of time, they settled there permanently.

Paddar was under Googay rule, during 10th century. It remained under their rule till 14th century. After 14th century, Paddar got separated from Googay rule and divided into smaller parts. These parts were ruled, by smaller Petty Ranas (Rana is an Old Hindu word for a ruler who is less in Power than a Raja). The Ranas of Paddar were Rajputs, Every village or every two or three villages used to have a Rana who often fought against the next village Rana. The area was inhabited mostly by Thakur community. People were serpent worshipers but they observed other Hindu rites and rituals as well. One can see temples of different Nagdevtas or Serpent Gods which are adorned with wood carvings of snakes of many forms. Besides Hindus there are also Muslims and Buddhists. The first Muslim came to Paddar during the period of Shantar Kantar Rana from Chamba who used to make the pots of soil. The descendants of those Muslims are still living at Atholi and kijai.

In the middle of 17th century AD Chattar Singh, the king of Chamba also attacked Paddar. He first conquered Pangi from where he advanced with about 200 men to Paddar and annexed it.  He constructed a fort after his name as well. The local Ranas could not face the onslaught of Raja Chattar Singh. They accepted his suzerainty and became his tributaries and began to work as his Kardars. The impact of Chatter Singh’s conquest lasted long and Paddar area continued to be the part of Chamba up to 1836. From Chattar Singhs period onward Paddar remained comfortably under the kings of Chamba for five to six generations.

Under the leadership of Ratnu Thakur the people of Paddar attacked Zanskar  in 1820 or 1825 (Zanskar was with a Bhot Raja under Ladakh). He made it his tributary. The Bhot Raja agreed to pay (Rupeeya) Rs 1,000 , besides musk bags and other things annually as Nazar (present) to the Chamba Raja.

As soon as General Zorawar Singh  reached Kishtwar he heard of an uprising in Ladakh  and hence left for Ladakh via Zanskar. From this route Leh is 275 miles from Kishtwar, which is the shortest route between these two places. Zanskar area falls en route Bhot Nullah. The army of Gen. Zorawar Singh entered Zanskar (Ladakh) through Paddar. This time wazir Lakhpat Rai Padyar, who was a trusted officer of Gulab Singh, also joined Zorawar Singh in the second attack on Ladakh. After conquering Ladakh a part of the Army was sent to Kargil and Zanskar under the command of Wazir Lakhpat Rai and Col. Mehta Basti Ram as Zanskar was not under them till then.  After conquering Zanskar, the army returned to Jammu  through Paddar.  30 soldiers of Dogra army were kept in Chattar Garh fort to keep in touch with the soldiers fortified in Zanskar. During this period a rebellion broke out in Z├ínskar and the Dogra soldiers present there were massacred. On hearing the news Ratnu Thakur, who was the highest employee of Chamba government instigated people and caught hold of Dogra soldiers. Some of them were made prisoners and sent to Chamba. This made Gen. Zorawar Singh mad with rage. He intended to attack paddar.

In 1836 General Zorawar Singh  along with 3000 soldiers, attacked Paddar from Zanskar through Bhot Nullah route. To escape from the onslaught frightened Ratnu demolished the bridge on Chenab. For this reason, the Dogra army had to wait for three months. With the help of some local peasants they made a ropeway bridge and crossed the Bhot Nullah and led a furious attack on Chattar Garh. The whole town was set on fire.  It was heaps of stone all around. Many people were hanged some were disfigured. A new fort was built in place of Chattar Garh.  An officer along with a few soldiers was stationed there for the watch of the fort and Paddar became a part o Dogara state . Ratnu was arrested and sent to Jammu, where he remained under detentions for three to four years. Subsequently, he was released and granted an estate in Kishtwar. Those days Paddar was under the Tehsildar of Bhardarwah.

After conquering Paddar Gen, Zorawar Singh went to Zanskar via Umasi La (Dharlang) about 17,370 feet from sea-level to quell the rebellion there. He succeeded in establishing peace. In 1837 a fierce rebellion broke out in Leh and Gen. Zorawar Singh covered the journey from Kishtwar to Leh in about ten days. In May 1838 Zorawar Singh got a fort built at Chisoti (Paddar) on his way back to Kishtwar.

In 1845 during the rule of Maharaja Gulab Singh, both Paddar and Zanskar were given the status of Tehsil.  Later on, when Leh  got district status, Ladakh  was merged with Leh and Paddar was merged with Kishtwar tehsil during the period of Maharaja Ranbir Singh in 1963, Paddar was given the status of block by the government of Jammu and Kashmir . Now, it enjoys the status of a tehsil. 

Paddar consists of many villages. Some of the notable villages are :
Gulabgarh-- - It is the significant village of Paddar.

Atholi --- It is known for its waterfall here in this village, a very scenic spot called Pathaal and a water mill (locally known as Ghiraat).

Tatta Paani - --This village is known for its natural hot springs. 

Sohal --- This village is famous among the trekking trails. Gandhari - This place is famous among mountaineers, hikers and climbers and known for green pastures. The trek route from here meets Zanskar in Ladakh  and village of Machail.

Haloti --- This is the nearest village to the famous Machail Mata Shrine.  Majority of the settlement here is of Buddhist community. This place is known for Yaks which are seen only in this area after Ladakh. These animals play very important role in the lives of local population as they are used for milking and even farming purposes to plough the fields. Many Buddhist monasteries  are also found here

.
Festivals
Some of the notable festivals celebrated in Paddar are :
Mela Magh --- This is the most famous festival in the area celebrated for three days in village Ligri in which thousands of people drawn from all villages take part. This festival is celebrated after a gap of one year. The disciples (Chelas) of gods & goddesses, attired in local woolen (Pattu) dresses with locally made grass shoes, perform specific godly devoted dances. The august mela is celebrated for three days in village Shail, Ligri & a visit to the holy lack at the upper reaches of Munhal Dhaar for third day respectively.

Zaagra --- A huge fire is lit in front of a temple of god/goddess during night and the chelas (disciples) along with other locals dance around the fire on a sound of Dhols and Flutes. 

Mithyaag --- This festival is celebrated to mark the onset of spring during which the Mother Land is worshiped for better crop yields. People gather at a particular place and dance collectively around the sacred weapons of the gods.



Kishtwar National Park
There is a National Park located in the Kishtwar  district.  It is bounded to the north by Rinnay River, south by Kibar Nala catchment, east by main divide of Great Himalaya and west by Marwa River.

The National Park encompasses the catchments of kiar, Nath and Kibar nalas, all of which drain south-west into Marwa River which joins the Chenab River just above Kishtwar Town. The terrain is generally rugged and steep, with narrow valleys bounded by high ridges opening in their upper glacial parts. The area lies in the Central Crystalline belt of the Great Himalayas. Rocks are strongly folded in places and composed mainly of granite, gneiss and schist, with the occasional bed of marble. The shallow, slightly alkaline soils are mostly alluvial with gravel deposits (Kurt,1976;Bacha, 1986).

Racial groups include Thakurs, Kashmiris,Gujars, Rajputs and Brahmans (Bacha, 1986).


New Doda Town
The distance from Kisthwar to Doda town is  about 70 Km. Now actual old Doda town is completely submerged because of Baglliar Hydral Project dam. So a  New-Doda town has been restructured and reconstructed at top of a small plateau which is at a height. To connect Doda to Bacharach and Batote, a new solid concrete bridge has been constructed that  crosses over Chenab River and this bridge is called a “Paka-Pul”







History
It is said that one of the ancient Rajas of Kishtwar whose dominion extended beyond Doda persuaded one utensil maker Deeda, a migrant from Multan (now in Pakistan), to settle permanently in this territory and set up an utensil factory there. Deeda is said to have settled in a village which later on came to be known after him. With the passage of time the name Deeda has changed into Doda, The present name of the town. 

The entire area of District Doda including Allaqa Dengbatal (Tehsil Mahore) was initially divided into two independent States of Kishtwar and Bhaderwah. The erstwhile Kishtwar State had been divided into eleven parganas of proper Kishtwar, Nagseni, Padder, Marwah, Warwan, Dachhan, Kontwara, Saroor Sarthal, Zanskar, Bawanjwah and Doda-Siraj-Banihal.

In other words, Kishtwar State consisted of all areas of the present District Doda including Deng Battal (Tehsil Mahore of Udhampur district) and Zanaskar of Kargil and excluding present Bhaderwah, Bhalessa, Thathri Tehsils, Marmat Galihan, Raggi, Assar, Batote areas of Doda and Ramban Tehsils. The history of Kishtwar dates back to 200 B.C.

When the revered Buddhist scholar Nagsena was invited to a discussion by king Mender in his palace at Sakla. In the discussions Nagsena replied all the questions of the king who then embraced Buddhism and became king Milinda. 

Nagsena recorded the discussion in "Millinda Panha" a Pali Treatise on the fundamental principles of Buddhist philosophy.

Kahan Palor Kahan Sen was the first Raja of Kishtwar who belonged to the royal dynasty of Vikramaditya of Ujjain. He had established his rule much earlier than 1087-88 A.D. He was succeeded by Raja Gandarb Sen and subsequently by 45 others in line of succession. The territory of Kishtwar was conquered by Raja Gulab Singh in 1821. A.D. when Raja Mohd Teg Singh surrendered at Doda without any resistance.


Kishtwar was annexed to Jammu kingdom in 1821 A.D. but Gulab Singh did not visit Kishtwar. He appointed Mian Chand Singh as Amil (Administrator) of Kishtwar. One Lak Shan was appointed as kardar under Chain Singh (Neeli Akhon-wala). Chain Singh was replaced by Mehta Basti Ram as administrator of Kishtwar. Raja Gulab Singh appointed Zorawar Singh as Governor of Kishtwar in June 1823 who remained in power up to 1841. Marwah was annexed to Kishtwar during Zorawar Singh's first Ladakh expedition (1833-34). From 1934-1841 Zorawar Singh led four expeditions to Ladakh.


When Zorawar was busy in crushing rebellion in Zanskar, Ratnu the Palsara or Chief Official of Chamba Raja in Paddar, stirred up the people and seized the Dogra soldiers kept at Chaattargarh Fort in Paddar. In the spring of 1836 Zorawar Singh personally commanded a large force of about 3,000 men to avenge the insult. Chattargarh's name was changed to Gulabgarh. When Zorawar Singh conquered Paddar, Ratnu fled away to Chamba where from he was sent to Jammu as a prisoner. During the fourth invasion of Ladakh, Zorawar Singh was killed on December 12,1841 by a Tibetan soldier in the battle of Doyo.


On the death of General Zorawar Singh, Mian Jabbar Singh was sent as Governor of Kishtwar in 1842 A.D. In 1846 A.D., the whole of Jammu and Kashmir situated in the eastward of the river Indus and westward of the river Ravi including Chamba and excluding Lahul was handed over to Maharaja Gulab Singh. Thus the province of Kishtwar also formed part of the J&K State. Sometime during 1875 ADD the J&K State was divided into two division called provinces and the status of Kishtwar got reduced to a district with Ramban as its Tehsil. Lala Sarb Dayal is considered as the last Governor of Kishtwar province. Kishtwar remained as a district headquarters upto 1909 A.D. and was then placed under Udhampur Wazarat. District Doda was ultimately carved out in 1948 A.D.


The Islamic faith entered the region of Kishtwar, when Hazrat Shah Farid-ud-Din came over to Kishtwar via Dengbattel, Ramban and Doda, in 1664 A.D. When Raja Jai Singh ruling the while going to Kishtwar, he stayed at Doda for the long long 14 years and then left for Kishtwar.


The principality of Bhadarwah was distributed into 15 tharas or administrative units. The total area of Bhaderwah Jagir (including Bhalessa etc) was 533 sq.miles which after amalgamation with Udhampur district in 1931 was reduced to 213 sq.miles only. The earliest mention of the place is traced from Rajatarangni around (1112-28 A.D.), where the place has been named as Bhadravakash i.e. good resting place.


According to the genealogical role of the Rajas of Billawar, the State of Bhaderwah was found about fifteenth century by a Scion of Balauria family, but later on, came under the control of Chamba. Thus it may be presumed that the State was established any time around 12th century, but the events of the place, right up to the close of 16th century are not very clear.


Nag Pal (IInd) was the son of Maha Pal who, like his father was a great devotee of Basak Nag. He is said to have ruled for one hundred years. Mela Patt is celebrated at Bhadarwah in honour of Nag Pal's spiritual victory over Emperor Akbar. After Nagpal (IInd) the political conditions of Bhadarwah principality were very uncertain up to the 17th century. Nag pal is said to have died about 1620 A.D. Nag Pal (IInd) was succeeded by Bhakhat Pal (1620-35 A.D.) and many others. Bhadarwah became a part of Chamba State during the reign of Charat Singh, (1821-44 A.D.).


His brother Zorawar Singh was appointed its Administrative Governor. Being a man of fine tastes Zorawar Singh preferred to stay at Chamba and administration of Bhadarwah was conducted by a succession of Subedars, who could not win over the local inhabitants. Zorawar Singh was designated as Titualar Raja of Bhadarwah in 1833 A.D. and was termed as Chhota Raja.


In 1844 A.D. Sri Singh was seated on the Gaddi of Chamba. Due to family dispute, Zorawar Singh fled to Bhadarwah and then to Jammu where he tried to gain the support of Jammu and rebel elements of Bhadarwah, but he could not succeed till his death. Zorawar Singh's son, Prakaram Singh was made Raja of Bhadarwah in 1845 A.D. But owing to Anglo-Sikh war of 1845, Sikh dominion of the Hill States became very weak and Gulab Singh availed this opportunity to annex Bhadarwah with his territory. The same year when Prakaram Singh was its Raja, Bhadarwah passed on to Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1846 A.D.


During Gulab Singh's time, Bhadarwah remained a military administered area, administered by a Special Administrative Officer and it was only in the later year of Ranbir Singh's rule, that Bhadarwah was bestowed as Jagir to Amar Singh. Bhadarwah in Ranbir Singh's time remained as private Jagir. Ranbir Singh appointed Lhab Joo as Kardar (Tehsildar) of Bhadarwah in 1859 A.D. Bhadarwah remained a Jagir of Raja Sir Amar Singh during 1978-81 A.D.


On November 10,1886, as per report of Tehsildar Bhadarwah, the Jagir of Bhadarwah was handed over to the representatives of Raja Amar Singh by Tehsildar Bhadarwah and it remained his personal domain with all Powers for its administration, development and revenue collection till his death in 1911 A.D. Thus for almost all practical purposes Amar Singh was ruler of Bhadarwah between 1886 and 1911. When Amar Singh passed away in 1911. A.D. Maharaja Pratap Singh issued an order regarding the Jagir and a committee of management was constituted for the estate of Hari Singh for the disposal of civil and criminal matters.


Pratap Singh passed away in 1925. He had no issue and therefore Amar Singh's son Hari Singh occupied the throne of J&K State. The status of the Jagir was changed. Its name as private Jagir was changed to Private Domain and incharge jagir was changed to Director Private Domains. On the recommendations of Private Domain Assimilation Committee, the status of Bhadarwah ended in 1930 A.D. Consequently Bhadarwah became a tehsil of Udhampur District in 1931. After establishment of District Headquarter Doda, Bhadarwah was made a tehsil of this District.


Consequent upon reorganization of District and Tehsils, Naibat Thathri and Niabat Bhalessa of Bhadarwah Tehsil also became fully fledged Tehsils in 1981.


Chenab River
The waters of the Chenab start from snow melt from the Bara-Lacha Pass, in Himachal Pradesh. The waters flowing south from the pass are known as the Chandra River and those that flow north are called the Bhaga River. Eventually the Bhaga flows around to the south joining the Chandra at the village of Tandi. A motorable road runs along the Bhaga River, from Khokhsar to Tandi. The Chandra and Bhaga meet to form the Chandrbhaga River at Tandi. It becomes the Chenab when it joins the Marau River at Bhandera Kot, 12 km from Kishtwar  Town. It flows from the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves (Doabs in Persian). It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu  and then by the Ravi River at Ahnedpur Sial. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch Sharif, Pakistan  to form the Panjnad or the 'Five Rivers', the fifth being the Beas River  which joins the Sutlej near Ferozepur, India. The Chenab then joins the Indus at Mithankot. The total length of the Chenab is approximately 960 kilometres.

History
The river was known to Indians in the Vedic period as Chandrabhaga.  In 325 BC, Alexander the Great allegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus  (present day Ich Sharif or Mithankot  or Chacharan in Pakistan at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River 

The Chenab River is also called as the “RIVER OF LOVERS” because of the . It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale of Heera Ranjha , the Punjabi national epic and the legend of  Sohni Mahiwal.

Salal Hyderal Project is already functional. This river has been in the news of late due to the steps taken by the Indian government to build a number of hydroelectric power dams along its length in India, notably Baglihar Dam , as part of the Indus Basin Project . These planned projects on Chenab have been contested by Pakistan, though Pakistan's objections have been dismissed by the Indian government.


DODA RIVER
The Doda River or the Stod River is a river 79 kilometres (49 mi) long, which forms the Stod Valley in the Zanskar valley  of the Ladakh region.

The Doda River rises from the Drang-Drung Glacier near Pensi-La, mountain pass off the Zanskar-Kargil road. The Drang-Drung Glacier is a river of ice and snow by itself and is the largest glacier other than the Siachen Glacier  in Ladakh outside the Karakoram Range. It gives rise to a mountain peak named "Doda Peak", 21,490 ft (6,550 meters) high, and it is the namesake for the Doda district , which lies in the rear side of the glacier; the Doda River is also known as Stod River. After rising from its source, the Doda River flows southeast down along the Kargil - Zanskar road in the main Zanskar valley, through the towns of Akshu, Abran, Kushol and Phey. The river then passes a confluence  with its tributary, the Tsarap River, at Padum, the capital of Zanska. Together, these two rivers form the Zanskar River, a tributary of the Indus River
The river at Kursha Monastery 

The Doda River contributes to the minimal agricultural production of the Zanskar valley by providing irrigation to the fields of barley, wheat, buckwheat and peas. Accessible in the summer, the Pensi-La  mountain pass at the source of the river receives heavy snowfall along with the other pass Zojila , which cuts off the Stod Valley from the rest of the country during winter, and the river freezes during this season. The river source at Pensi La lies 350 kilometres (220 mi) east from the Srinagar r, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. The Doda River is famous for adventure sports. Rafting events are organised throughout the length of the Doda and the Zanskar.

We reached late at night to New town of Doda and after checking in the government guest house, we went out to the sleepy town to have dinner. After dinner we just got knocked out and exhaustedly slept off. This New town of Doda is built on a plateau that is on top of a mountain. The new town is well planned city with proper drainage, proper lanes, proper market and modern cemented houses. Because the old town of Doda which was on a very lower level, got completely submerged in the back waters of Chenab River after Baglliar Hydral Project dam was constructed.

Tuesday, 6 May 2014

Chapter---(11 & 12) of my Mughal Road Motor Biking Escapade

Chapter—(11 & 12) of (15)



In this chapter also, I have complied two days (29 & 30 July) travelling into one. The reason is that because of both the days, our most of the time went only in travelling
and very little of sightseeing.


On 29th of July 2012, after our breakfast at Gulmarg, we rode our motor bikes back towards Srinagar city through the same route through which we had come. But just 20 Km before Batmalu (central bus stand of Srinagar city), at Naebal we took the by-pass road, which by- passes the whole crowded Srinagar city and this by-pass road joins near Badami Bagh cantonment area. By using this by-pass road, not only did we save distance wise, but we tremendously saved on travelling time also. We nearly saved about one and ½ hour.




As per our today’s plan, for the night we would be staying at Anantnag city. From Gulmarg to Anantnag city we had to travel via Tangmarg---Manigam---Naebal---Badami-Bagh-(cantonment-area)---Pampore---Awantipora---Bijbehara---Anantnag City. At moderate and comfortable speed, we took about five hours from Gulmarg to reach Anantnag city. At Anantnag we stayed at Forest department’s guest house where our prior booking was already confirmed, courtesy Bushan parimoo.



Pampore Town

From Srinagar on the way to Anantnag, the very first popular town that comes on the way is Pampore Town. It is on the south of Kashmir and is roughly about 10 Km from Srinagar city. It is situated at Jammu-Srinagar National highway. Pampore Town is famous for Saffron cultivation. In whole of Kashmir Valley, Pampore is the only area where saffron grows.


Saffron 



Pampore area is the best producer of saffron in Kashmir valley. Saffron is one of the costliest spices of the world. The estimation given by the saffron dealer of Kashmir, Pampore has a capability to grow more than 385 KG of saffron in a year. But because of the industrial waste of chemical pollution of Wuyan cement factory at Pampore, the industrial cement dust and the industrial soot has gradually declined the saffron growth. In 2004 it went down up to 248 kg of saffron in a year. But the continuous problem occurred by these cement industries have shown great decline in this saffron cultivation. In 2010 the saffron traders have not done deal of saffron more than 73 kg in a year. The sad part is that despite the continuous strong protests of the saffron growers, Government of Jammu and Kashmir has not done anything to take care of the severe industrial waste problems caused by the cement factories around Pampore area. The net result is that the saffron growers are frustrated, dejected and helpless.




At pampore as per our prior communication, we met two good friends of Bashan Primoo. They are Mr. Chaudrey Mohamad Yasim and Mr. Zakir Hussain who were informed to wait for us at a known location. These friends of Bushan Parimoo are saffron growers as well as the members of Saffron growers association of Kashmir.




After our friendly meeting with them, they arranged to serve us with hot, hot Saffron-Khawa. Khawa is local Kashmiri sweet tea, which is brewed with saffron and honey. Khawa is tasty, aromatic, delicious, refreshing and rejuvenating.









The next important town on our journey comes Awantipora.




Awantipora Temples

The ruins of Awantipora temples are located at Awantipora town which is about 25 km from the state capital Srinagar. Awantipora is a small town located at Jammu-Srinagar National highway. This town may be about 25 Km from Srinagar city.

Awantipora has a number of ancient Hindu temples built by King Awanti Varman (AD 855- 883) when he chose this site as his capital.


History of Awantipora




Avantishwar temple located at Jawbrari in the centre of a courtyard surrounded by a colonnaded peristyle is dedicated to Lord Shiva on the banks of the River Jhelum  (Vitasta). Less than a kilometre away is Avantiswamin temple dedicated to Vishnu. The Vaikunta Vishnu illustrated as frontispiece is said to be found in this temple. The two temples are quite similar structurally. The walls of the entrance are ornamented with sculptured reliefs both internally and externally.








The ruins of temples constructed by Lalitaditya, the Brahmin emperor of Kashmir, are also located in Awantipora. At Awantipora the two temple ruins located are about one km from each other. The first ruin is the Awantiswamin Temple. A Vaishnava temple built by king Awantivarman (855 AD – 883 AD), Vaikuntha Vishnu was the presiding deity.





This imposing monument has been built on a two-tiered base in the centre of a paved courtyard. Buddhist influence is quite evident in the architecture. The outer boundary wall or the courtyard has four shrines in its four corners. The entrance to the temple is located in the middle of the west wall and can be approached by a flight of steps. The walls have beautiful designs and images of gods. Even though the temple is dedicated to Vishnu, images of Shiva can also be seen on the pillars and stones. Even after 1200 years, the sculpted images are distinctly visible and impressive.

There is an underground Indian Air Force Station situated at Koil which is about 5 Km away from Awantipora.



The next important town that comes on our way to Anantnag is called as Bijbehara



The town of Bijbehara is situated in the south of Kashmir on the banks of Jhelum River popularly known here as "Veth". It is one of the notable towns of the district. It is four miles to the north of Anantnag town. The town is surrounded and intersected by plateaus, including "The Totak Shah", from which the whole town can be seen. There are many other plateaus which are getting urbanised.

History of Bijbehara







The Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh constructed a bridge here which was 100 yards long and 6 yards wide spanning the Jhelum River at Bijbehara near the Mughal garden. The bridge was washed away by heavy floods. The oldest Chinar tree of the sub-continent is located in the garden popularly called as Padshahi Bagh which is now under the control of Tourist Department. The garden comprises 25 Chinars. The oldest Chinar is 70 feet in circumference at ground level. The Dara Shiku Garden is also on the bank of the Jhelum... The Padshahi Garden and the Dara Shikwa Garden are separated by the river Jehlum which is spanned over by a bridge known as "Padshahi Bagh Bridge", thus connecting the two gardens.


Sikh saint Guru Nanak sahibji had also come to this town and presently a Gurudwara under name "Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji Pehli Padshahi Gurudwara Bijbehara" is at this place.







Bijbehara finds mention in Rajtarangini  by Kalhan. Then famous for temples of Chakradhar and Vijayeshwar. Vijayeshwar temple was built by King Shachinar. This temple was reconstructed again during the reign of Anantdev. This fortified temple was a famous site in then Kashmir (previous to 500 AD).




The area in between Awantipora and Bijbehara is very famous for having many industries manufacturing only cricket bats. Since the whole of Bijbehara has plenty of Willow trees cultivation and Willow is the best suitable wood for manufacturing high quality of cricket bats. To attract the attentions of the Kashmir tourists, on either side of the national highway at Bijbehara has huge stacks of precut and unfinished cricket bats. Almost all the Indian tourists who visit Kashmir, buy cricket bats from Bijbehara. Because these cricket bats are sold at a very reasonable price.


Then the next important city that comes on our way is called Anantnag.

Anantnag city

Anantnag is about 65 Km from Srinagar city. Near Anantnag i.e. at Khanbal there is a forked road junction, where one road turns right that goes to Jammu city and the other forked road junction leads to Anantnag city and Amarnath cave via Pahalgam. While coming from Jammu city, the Pilgrimages’ those who wish to visit Amarnath cave via Pahalgam take the deviation here at Kahanbal.


 The name Anantnag was derived from the Sanskrit term for "Land of countless springs" Nag also means water spring in the Kashmiri language. Thus Anantnag is believed to mean numerous springs, because there are many springs, including Nag Bal, Salak Nag and Malik Nag in the town.


History of Anantnag

Anantnag is an ancient city that came into existence as a market town around 5000 BCE making it one of the oldest urban human settlements in the world. Before the advent of Muslim rule in 1320 CE, Kashmir was divided into three divisions, viz., Maraz in the south, Yamraj in the centre and Kamraj in the north of the Valley. Old chronicles reveal that the division was the culmination of the rift in between Marhan and Kaman, the two brothers, over the crown of their father. The part of the valley which lies between Pir Panjal and Srinagar , and called the Anantnag, was given to Marhan and named after him as Maraj. While Srinagar is no longer known as Yamraj, the area to its north and south are still called Kamraz and Maraz respectively.


Springs of Nag-Bal and Devi-Bal Temples in Anantnag City





Anantnag is also well mentioned in ancient Naga and Pichash chronicles of ancient aboriginals of the valley. It was also known as Kashyapteshwara in ancient times linking it to the mythology of Kashyap Reshi. In ancient times, it was called the Inder Nag.


Anant also means numerous in the Sanskrit language and Naga means springs in the Kashmiri language. Thus Anantnag is believed to mean numerous springs because here are many springs including Nagbal, Salak Nag and Malik Nag in the town. Thus every part of Anantnag town resides on a crest of water. Few feet depth brings water to the surface. Anantnag is a perfect Vastu Shastra location by nature. On one side is a hillock releasing endless water from its feet. Localities are thus blessed with this perfect Vastu creation of nature.



Near Anantnag three streams namely Arapath, the glacier waters from Mrigin Mountain and streamlets from springs of Chahaer and Brahmasar form Aripat Bringi, Bringi freshet is formed by the glacier waters from the Hokhsar Mountain and various other streams from Springs of Navbhug and Kokernag and Sandran the glacier waters from Brari Mountain and streams from Verinag and other springs of Shahabad from Sandran confluence together and mingles with Veyth. Another stream Liddar (Lamboodri) also joins the flow with them at a little distance downstream further ahead.


 The entire temple complex is known popularly as Nagabal and is famous Hindu religious center in Anantnag District.


According to ancient mythological stories, the name Anant-Nag is given to the place because Lord Shiva during his journey to Amarnath cave left all his valuables on the way and Anant-Nag was the place where he is supposed to have left countless number of serpents residing on him.


The Nagbal temple is in the eastern corner of the Anantnag town, placed adjacent to a spring. There are long shady Chinar trees that stand sentinel round the tank. The presiding deity of the Nagbal temple is Lord Ananta Bhawan set up at the outlet of the spring. The temple was built by Maharaja Ranbir Singh, the 2nd Dogra ruler of Kashmir. There are also other smaller temples in the temple complex. Shiva temple, the oldest temple, was built during the reign of Maharaja Partap Singh. A sulphur spring, which is believed to possess spiritual and medicinal power, is also located in the temple complex. Nagbal is bounded by incredible beauty.





Devibal, a small stone temple is located near Nagbal Temple complex and is dedicated to the Mata Ragnya. Inside the temple is the sanctum sanctorum, which is about 12 square feet in size, in the middle of which is 6 square feet holy spring. The Ragnya is said to have blessed the spring. According to a legend, Wazir Pannu, who was a minister during Dogra rule, had a dream in which the goddess revealed to him the secret of her presence in the holy spring and left it to the care of Pandit Balkak, a priest. Maharaja Pratap Singh used to visit the shrine during his travel from Jammu to Srinagar or back, pray and make offerings. He is also believed to have donated land to the shrine.







Now one more temple complex of Lord Rama is come up within the compound complex of Nag Bal. This Lord Rama temple is just adjutant to Sulphur spring. This temple complex is constructed in phases, during militancy, first by senior Swamiji, shri shri Mahant Swami Madhav Dass ji Maharaj and then continued by junior swamiji Shri Ganesh Dass ji. During militancy Senior swamiji was kidnapped by militants and tortured asking him to run away from Anathnag city. Since he refused to listen to militants, they tortured him, starved him and even tied him up side down, but in vain. Then somehow local Muslims approached the militants and requested them to release him. Once he was released, he was to week to walk, to talk or to eat. After some time he died. Then his junior Swamiji,  Shri Ganesh Dass ji took over the temple. Even he was threatened by the militants, but somehow militants let him continue. junior swamiji Shri Ganesh Dass ji is still there in the temple, and he is now expanding the construction of the Ram Temple. He has constructed a big three storied building. On all the two floors he has established Nav-Durgas and on the top floor he has constructed about 20 feet cemented beautiful “shiv-Linga”

About the torture of the senior swamiji by the militants were narrated to us by the present swamiji.


As Anantnag is located centrally, it has a strategic importance as a major centre of trade and commerce. It is a city of various handicrafts and main trading centre and manufacturing place for shawl weaving, “GABBA” which is hand knotted carpet using ruff, coarse black colour wool. And “NAMDAH” is also hand knitted white carpet using ruff coarse white clouour cheap wool.


For the night we stayed at Anatnag forest guest house.




At the guest house Bushan Parimoo met Mr Haji Nizamudin Khotana, Ex MLC and prominent Gujjar leader  and they had a long constructive political discussion.



Next day morning we rode our motor bikes to visit ruins of Martahnd, “THE SUN TEMPLE”’






The valley of Kashmir is famed around the world for its mystical glorious past of grandeur, power and riches beyond imagination. The antiquity of the monuments and various architectural structures tell tales of a rich legacy and a refined sense of culture and art. The Kashmir Valley has witnessed many vicissitudes and experienced many upheavals from time to time.  No significant ancient building or archaeological site is found in the valley today, except for the Martand temple, To name a few more like the Martand Sun Temple, the Awantipora temples, the Sankara-Gauresvara temple, temple of Sugandhesa at Patan, the Pandrethan temples, the Shiva Bhutesa and Siva Jeyshthesa temples at Vangath, the Parihasakesva, Muktakesva, Mahavarha and Goverdhanadhara temples in Parihasapura, and the famous Mameswara Siva temple at Mamalaka are some specimens of great archaeological value.







As most of the ancient architectural monuments in the area were destroyed during the rule of Pathans, Mughals and Sultan Sikander. What must have once been magnificent architectural show pieces like the Martand complex of temples, or the temples of Lalitaditya , the Emperor of Kashmir, and King Awantivarman at Awantipoa  (which lie midway between Srinagar and Anantnag), are now in grand ruins, but nonetheless exude evidence of their glorious past.







Kashmiri architecture is different from the rest of India as most temples are square or oblong in design. They are subdivided into closed (vimana) or open (mandapa) type. Kashmiri temples are typically ‘Suddha’ edifices, constructed with one kind of material from base to the summit. The ancient temples of Kashmir mostly range from mid 8th century AD to 12th century AD.

History








The Martand temple is one of the important archaeological sites of the country. The temple was attacked by Sikander Butshikan. It took one year for Sikander Butshikan to fully damage and destroy this Martand temple. Even today one gets surprised over art and skill of the builders of this world famous Martand temple by looking at its ruins.
Its impressive architecture reveals the glorious past of the area. After Independence, the government developed many beauty spots of the district, but of their noble and magnificent edifices only faint traces survive. This temple has the typical Aryan structure as was present in Aryan Kashmir.


The Martand temple is situated at Rambirpora Kehribal, nine kilometres east-north-east of Anantnag city.





The temple in Indo-Greek architectural style was built by the King Lalitaditya. The Martand temple is one of the most important archaeological sites of the country. Ancient temples of Kashmir mostly range from mid 8th century AD to 12th century AD
The temples tell tales of rich legacy and refined sense of culture and art


Jawahar Tunnel

Since Krishna Hebbar and Abhimanu had not seen Jawahar tunnel, so we decided to drive through the Jawahar tunnel and come back to proceed to our further journey. Though it was our out of the way to drive towards the tunnel, but we thought that it was worth taking the trouble to drive out of the way, so that these two guys could see the Jawahar tunnel. So we came back from Marthand to Qazigund via Khanbal. After heavy lunch at Qazigund we rode our bikes to Jawahar tunnel which is about 20 Km from Qazgund.










Jawahar Tunnel is named after the first Prime Minister of India was constructed for round-the-year surface transport by Mr. Alfred Kunz and Mr. C. Barsel (both were German) between 1954 and 1960. The Jawahar tunnel has been operational since 22 December 1956. The length of tunnel is 2.85 km (1.77 mi), its elevation is 2,194 m (7,198 ft) and it has one lane road in either direction. It is situated between Banihal and Qazigund on NH-A1.The tunnel facilitates round-the-year road connectivity from Srinagar to Jammu. 






Later the tunnel was renovated by the Border Road Organization under the project BEACON in 1960. It was designed for 150 vehicles per day in each direction but the number of vehicles is now 7,000 in both directions. After renovations, the tunnel now has a two-way ventilation system, pollution &temperature sensors, lighting system and with emergency phones for any assistance from Border Roads Organization.
It is guarded by military round the clock. Once the vehicle enters the tunnel, it has to maintain the same speed throughout the tunnel. CCTVs are installed in the tunnel for continuous monitoring.

The tunnel used to be closed for civilian traffic between midnight and 8 a.m. until 2009. Now it is open all 24 hours of the day.


Details of Jawahar tunnel




Jawahar tunnel is at 7,200 feet above sea level and is 2.85 Km long, at present movement of vehicles per day is around 7,000. Design engineers were Alfred Kunz and C. Barsel (both German). Tunnel work started in 1954 and was opened on 22nd December 1956. When the tunnel was designed, it was designed for the movement of 150 vehicles only. And in those olden days all most all the vehicles were small. A Bus could carry only 16 people. Lorries could carry only 5 tones of load etc.


After closure of the Murree-Muzaffarabad-Srinagr road on partition of India in 1947, Banihal pass was the only passage that connected Jammu to Srinagar. Prior to Jawahar tunnel, all the vehicle traffic had to pass through Banihal Pass which was at an elevation of 9,500 feet above sea level on Pir Panjal Mountain that connected Banihal with Qazigund on the other side of the mountain. The Pir Panjal mountain range separates the Kashmir valley from the outer Himalaya and plains to Jammu region.  The Banihal pass was accessible only in summer and remains closed rest of the year due to heavy snow and continuous landslides.





New double road tunnels which is under costruction

Construction of a new 8.45 km (5.25 mi) long Banihal-Qazigund road tunnel started in 2011 to widen NH 1A to four lanes. It is a double tube tunnel consisting of two parallel tunnels - one for each direction of travel. Each tunnel is 7 meter wide tunnel and has two lanes of road. The two tunnels are interconnected by a passage every 500 meters for maintenance and emergency evacuation. The tunnel will have forced ventilation for extracting smoke and stale air and infusing fresh air. It will have state of the art monitoring and control systems for security.


The new tunnel's average elevation at 1,790 m (5,870 ft) is 400 meter lower than the existing Jawahar tunnel’s elevation and would reduce the road distance between Banihal and Qazigund by 16 km (9.9 mi). The new tunnel would also be less prone to snow avalanche as it will be at a lower elevation. The vehicles will have to pay toll tax to use the tunnel.


Most of the boring has been completed and the tunnel is in the final stage of completion.


Verinag Town



Coming back from Jawahar tunnel towards Kashmir valley (Qazigund) we drove our bikes down towards Verinag town.

History of Verinag







Verinag spring is of great importance and beauty, with deep blue water which issues from the bottom of a high scrap of a mountain spur and here also Emperor Jehangir built a garden and pleasure house. The Verinag spring is about 26 kilometers away from Anantnag and is considered as the original source of river Jehlum. The spring is situated at the bottom of hill covered by pine trees and evergreen plants. The wonderful and charming construction of the spring as well as its adjacent garden compels the visitors to see it again and again. The construction of the banks of spring as well as its surroundings is of rare shape.


The next town on our way was Achabal


Achabal Town


History of Achabal 









Achabal is an important tourist place about 8 kilometers away from Anathnag . The place is famous and attractive due to an ancient spring surrounded by a garden terraced and developed by the Mughals. The place has got some historical background also. The upper portion of the garden is called 'Bag-e-Begum Abad' developed by Malika Noor Jehan Begum in 1620 AD and renowned as Sahib Abad in which there was a Hamam (treasure of water) getting heat from a logical lamp (Tosng).


The next town on our way was Kokernag 


History of  Kokernag 








It is famous for its trout streams and the largest fresh water spring in Kashmir, Trout hatchery department which has constructed pools in series where in trout is reared. Different pools have got trout with different weights and ages. Departments sell it to the tourists who find it a delicious dish and enjoy it. Kokernag is eight miles from Achabal and famous for the curative properties of its beautiful springs. The total area of Kokernag is 300 Kanals of which 129 kanals is for the purpose of gardens and the rest is forest area. Kokernag has some historical importance also. Kokernag has been mentioned in Ain Akbari, where in it has been mentioned that the water of Kokernag satisfies both hunger and thirst and its is also a remedy for indigestion. The author of Ain Akbari notices that touch-stone is found in Kokernag.